During his reign there was a temporary naval revival in which the Byzantine navy consisted of 80 ships. Composition of the Gothic forces The Gothic armies were mostly infantry, with some cavalry, which was significant in the battle of Adrianople. The city of Adrianople — also known as Hadrianople, Hadrianopolis, and in modern times Edirne — lies at the center of classical Thrace. Irene was almost immediately confronted with a conspiracy against her close to home and in Sicily. Until archaeology comes to the rescue, as it has at Teutoburger Wald, the best we can hope for is to establish the right area to look in. The outcome at Adrianople shocked the Western world.
One of the revolts was caused by the usurper Procopius, a relative of the last of the line of Constantine, Julian. In deciding whether the emperor was foolhardy to offer battle when he did, we have to consider that Roman intelligence was in general excellent. Fritigern brought most if not all of his fighters to the battle, and appears to have led the force the Romans first encountered. He managed to hold together a confederacy of disparate clans and tribes with no greater authority than their belief in his ability to win. In 634 the Muslims invaded Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius' brother Theodore. Fritigern's objective was to delay the Romans, in order to give enough time for the Gothic cavalry to return. Fritigern assembled the Gothic forces at Nicopolis and Beroe to deal with this Roman threat As at Ad Salices, the tribesmen had formed their wagons into a large circle with their families and possessions protected within, and the warriors forming a line outside, facing the approaching enemy.
Course of battle This unreferenced section requires to ensure. Richomeres, sent by Gratian, carried a letter asking Valens to wait for the arrival of reinforcements from Gratian before engaging in battle. On the morning of 9 August, Valens decamped from Adrianople, where he left the imperial treasury and administration under the guard of the legions. He also conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Emperor to do so in over two hundred years. The crisis continued into 378, with the Visigoths holding sway over much of Thrace, an ancient country in the southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, reaching north to the Danube and comprising modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece and Turkey.
Burns shows that the Gothic army's cavalry arm was actually fairly small, that Valens would actually have had more cavalry and that while the role of Fritigern's cavalry was critical to his victory, the battle was a mainly infantry versus infantry affair. With Nike in his hands, the chieftain will be in an even stronger bargaining position. Even though was fought in the Eastern Empire, it generally is viewed as the conflict that initiated the eventual collapse of the Western Empire. Instead of granting them land on which to farm, they were herded into holding camps under the watch of armed guards. Mistakes Made During the Battle of Adrianople Some argue that the outcome of the Battle of Adrianople could have been quite different if Valens would have had more patience and had waited for reinforcements from his nephew Gratian, who was the Emperor of the West Roman Empire. It would be unjust, however, to cite the Roman failings without crediting the strategic skill shown by Fritigern; in spite of his logistic problems, the Goth commander managed to dictate the terms and tempo throughout the campaign. Opposing Forces From ancient times to today all sides have exaggerated the numbers of troops involved.
A bloodless victory was as prestigious as a battlefield success, and avoided Roman losses. The other claims that, wounded by an arrow, he was taken by his guards to a nearby peasant dwelling, which the Goths subsequently attacked. For the Goths, this was the final straw. His arguments about the difficulties of the march ahead, including the darkness of the coming night, suggest that the army has covered less than half the distance. He offered to act as a hostage to facilitate negotiations when Equitus refused.
In any case, Valens seemed confident of an easy victory on the morning of August 9 as he led the field army of the east from Adrianople to attack the Goths, who were camped 12 miles from the city. But the left wing of the cavalry, of which a considerable number were still straggling on the road, were advancing with speed, though with great difficulty; and while this wing was deploying, not as yet meeting with any obstacle, the barbarians being alarmed at the terrible clang of their arms and the threatening crash of their shields since a large portion of their own army was still at a distance, under Alatheus and Saphrax, and, though sent for, had not yet arrived , again sent ambassadors to ask for peace. Ammianus notes the important role of the Gothic cavalry. Certainly a force of that size would have commanded the attention of both Emperors. The raiding party, finding the pass blocked not necessarily on the first of those days , would not have tarried long before lack of forage forced them to retrace their steps. Probably they have timed the raid to take place just as the main horde is emerging from the gap, at a similar distance from the Roman army, which will have just reached Adrianople. There were also squadrons of Arab cavalry, but they were more suited to skirmishes than to pitched battle.
By this time, the Romans had already developed the armored cavalry known so well from Byzantine times, and could certainly match anything the Goths put into the field. However, once across the and in Roman territory , the dishonesty of the provincial commanders and Maximus led the newcomers to revolt after suffering many hardships. He writes that the Gothic position was upon a low hill, behind a barrier of wagons, defending their camp. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. Soldiers similar to this would have been used by the Romans.
Besides all this, the roads were blocked by many who lay mortally wounded, lamenting the torment of their wounds; and with them also mounds of fallen horses filled the plains with corpses. Moreover, troops were needed to protect Marcianopolis and other threatened cities, so it is unlikely that all three armies fought together. Even Blockley, who understands this much, reads the passage as meaning that it is still midday. From that point onward, things started to unravel in a huge way, moreso for the Western Empire. On the other hand, some historians go too far in asserting that the army as a whole was not deployed into line when the archers and targeteers made their rash move. In no way would a small army of 12,000 Goths be so dangerous that both Emperors would drop everything and rush to the Balkans. After that battle, however, Roman armies lost their classical character.
The year Heraclius came to power the Empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Strength of Valens' army Several modern historians have attempted to estimate the strength of Valens' army. On the wooded hillside he secretly assembled 5,000 foot archers and a force of cavalry. After learning of Sebastian's success against the Goths, and of Gratian's victory over the Alamanni, Valens was more than ready for a victory of his own. Without knowing the numbers of men who marched that day, how many columns they marched in, and what kind of obstacles they faced, it is impossible to make more than a rough estimate of the ground they covered. In the modern tropical astrological calendar, the transit of Leo does not end until late August. In the meantime they may be close enough to the camp to be contributing to the terror described in the following paragraphs, by shooting into it.
Ammianus writes: The enemy purposely delayed, in order that during the pretended truce their cavalry might return, who, they hoped, would soon make their appearance; also that our soldiers might be exposed to the fiery summer heat and exhausted by their dry throats, while the broad plains gleamed with fires, which the enemy were feeding with wood and dry fuel, for this same purpose. Valens' officers also recommended that he wait for Gratian, but Valens decided to fight without waiting, ready to claim the ultimate prize. The Battle The battle took place about 8 miles north of Adrianople in the Roman province of. Reports tell how soldiers were pressed together so closely that many could not raise their arms from their sides. I have read most of the accounts in English that more than mention the campaign, including the two book-length studies.