Rational-emotive psychologist Albert Ellis takes another approach to cognitive theory, accounting more broadly for our tendencies to let our thoughts produce our own self-produced misery. Evolutionary theorists believe that all human cultures share several primary emotions, including happiness, contempt, surprise, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. According to this theory, emotions are composed of two factors: physiological and cognitive. The theory suggests that the physiological reactions must be cognitively labeled and interpreted as a particular emotion.
These components lead us to a state of activation arousal determined to prepare the body to give an adaptive response to the stimulus and to communicate to the individuals around us our emotions. We might feel angry when we are betrayed, fear when we are threatened, and surprised when something unexpected happens. Theories of Emotion Our emotional states are combinations of physiological arousal, psychological appraisal, and subjective experiences. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event. In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness. Subsequently, the perception of this emotion fear influences the person's reaction to the stimulus heights. This section will present the various theories related to the acquisition of emotion.
You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to tremble, your heart beats faster, and your breathing deepens. The students exposed to the angry confederate reported that they felt angry; those exposed to the euphoric confederate said they felt happy. The sensory information processed would also reach the cortex through the ascending thalamic pathways and the emotional information already processed would go to the cortex through the hypothalamus pathways. The decorticate cats, when provoked, exhibited the emotional behavior normally associated with rage and aggression, as demonstrated by erect hair, growling, and the baring of teeth Hayes, 2003. This behavior is dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of fear. In reality, the other person was a confederate of the researcher.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, you would only experience a feeling of fear after this physiological arousal had taken place. It would seem that other areas of the brain must be involved in processing emotions. To Cannon-Bard, the conscious emotional experience and physiological arousal are two simultaneous and largely independent events. They believe that all other emotions result from blends and different intensities of these primary emotions. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
When you feel good, you're able to shrug off even the most burdensome of tasks, but when you're miserable, you view even an enjoyable activity with a sense of gloom and doom. You begin to tremble, and your heart begins to race. Strong emotions can cause you to take actions you might not normally perform or to avoid situations you enjoy. The emotional psychology studies how emotions are expressed in humans. Facial Feedback Theory According to the facial feedback theory, emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles.
Then there's the sentimental carryings-on of House Republican John Boehner, whose tear ducts seem on constant overdrive. For example, if you experience a racing heart and sweating palms during an important math exam, you will probably identify the emotion as anxiety. To test their idea, Schachter and Singer performed a clever experiment. Schachter-Singer Theory According to this theory, an event causes physiological arousal first. James-Lange theory would then suggest that you would label those feelings as fear. Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state? As the theory was made based on these experiments, it was called Cannon-Bard theory.
Another well-known physiological theory is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. Typically, the word emotion indicates a subjective, affective state that is relatively intense and that occurs in response to something we experience Figure 1. Why we cry at weddings is another story. Thus, people experience internal arousal, seek an explanation for it, identify an external cue and finally label the cue. The first specific circuit for emotion The first specific circuit for emotion was prepared by Papez in 1937. This then leads to the emotional experience of fear and the physical reactions associated with the.
The feelings are private and subjective experiences, they are purely cognitive and are not accompanied by behaviors. The revolution in emotion theory, led by University of Pennsylvania psychiatrist Aaron Beck, showed that our thoughts alone can produce our emotions. He also believed in what we might casually refer to as a gut feeling—that we can experience an instantaneous and unexplainable like or dislike for someone or something Zajonc, 1980. The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, also known as the Thalamic theory of emotion, is a physiological explanation of emotion developed by Walter Cannon and Philip Bard. Does it mean that you must have everyone like you? According to this view, physiological arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously, yet independently Lang, 1994.
Your emotions are crucial to your ability to adapt to the challenges of your daily life. Evolutionary Theories More than a century ago, in the 1870s, Charles Darwin proposed that emotions evolved because they had adaptive value. That's why everyone should spend some time examining their basic premises about life. Thus, the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion was developed. If a tells you a tragic story and you react by snickering instead of looking sad or concerned, you'll seem rude and insensitive. How and when we express these emotions differs radically by the norms of each of our cultures, the so-called display rules. More specifically, it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction.
An emotion is a subjective state of being that we often describe as our feelings. A stimulus leads to a physiological response that is then cognitively interpreted and labeled which results in an emotion. Bard expanded this theory by giving the idea that the sensory information that comes into brain is sent simultaneously by the thalamus to both the cortex which generates emotion and the organs of the sympathetic nervous system which generates physiological changes in the body. Upon noticing this arousal you realize that is comes from the fact that you are walking down a dark alley by yourself. Here we will focus on emotion, and you will learn more about mood in the chapter that covers psychological disorders. Canon called the behavior sham rage because according to the James-Lange theory emotional behavior could not occur without connections to the brain.