Whereas history is concerned with particular wars and revolutions, sociology is concerned with war and revolution in general as social phenomena, as forms of social conflict and not with their particular and concrete manifestations. But as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family, they became more subordinate to men. In this way sociology adds to our knowledge about human society. For quick reference, these categories or canons are arranged in a series of opposing pairs and italicize and underline those logical characteristics that pertain to sociology: Social Natural Categorical Normative Pure Applied Abstract Concrete Generalizing Particularizing Rational Empirical General Special Major Theoretical Perspectives: A crucial element in sociology is theory. In modern society not only countries but also several countries are interdependent on another.
In modern societies, social likeness has broadened its attribute to the principle to one world. This makes horticultural societies distinct from , which do use these tools, and from , which rely on the cultivate of herd animals for subsistence. The Conflict Perspective Although it stems from the work of many scholars, the conflict perspective is most directly based upon the work of Karl Marx 1818-1883 , who saw class conflict and class exploitation as the prime moving forces in history. The development and advancement of computer technology, television, and the creation of the radio are all associated with the development of post-industrial societies. But as a matter of fact, competition is not an inborn tendency rather it is a social phenomenon. The cultural bond may be ethnic or racial, based on gender, or due to shared beliefs, values, and activities. Family as the first society based on biological differences and differences in aptitude, interest and capacity.
The conflict perspective would concentrate upon as to which groups and classes benefit from the university and how access to higher education operates to preserve the position of the privileged groups. Society is a complex system of social relationship. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities. Because of these variables, there was also variety in the social and political structures of these societies in history, and in those that exist today. The majority of the members' time is spent looking for and gathering food.
It may also be noted that the organizational trend today is towards forms of control and organization that reduce rather than encourage intergroup competition. In some cases, people combine horticulture with hunting or fishing, or with the keeping of a few domesticated farm animals. It is a natural result of the universal struggle for existence. This develops functional inter relationship among the members of the society. The major characteristics of sociology are that it is a social science because it deals with the social world, and it is a normative discipline because it limits itself to statements about things that exist.
And the relationships established around these create society. It is the interdependence that fulfills the need of society and its goal. Yet a definition of some sort is needed, and sociology is often defined as the scientific study of human social life. Human beings behave differently from other animals. An example of postmodernism in sociology would be Scientology.
Characteristics of a Society Maclver believes that society means likeness. Hence society is abstract in nature. Sociology is a pure science and not an applied science: A distinction is often made between pure sciences and applied sciences. Moreover, sociology has its own research methodology and subject matter limitation. Marriage, organizes sexual behaviour and assures legitimate children. Sociology is a generalizing and not a particularizing or individualizing science: Sociology tries to find out the general laws or principles about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies. Theories and facts are required in the construction of knowledge.
But for the establishment of social relationships a group of people is necessary. A society is the largest number of human beings who interact to satisfy their social needs and who share a common culture. Sociology studies social factors that all social phenomena have in common, whether they are economic or political. As a result, the accumulation of food and goods was possible and with it, a more complex division of labor, more substantial dwellings, and a small amount of trade. Still, it is useful at the outset to have a survey of the characteristics of sociology to distinguish its particular perspective from those of other social sciences. When the animals left the area, the plants died, or the rivers dried up, the society had to relocate to an area where resources were plentiful. In the second place, sociology is a categorical, not a normative, discipline because it confines itself to statements about what is, not what should be or ought to be.
Human community is fundamentally an arrangement under which individuals must perform functions which, while enabling them to exist, also make it possible for the community as a whole to conduct its affairs. Others feel that postmodernism is actually dangerous because it will create a place where there cannot be any growth or progress. Besides society consists of customs, traditions, folkways, mores and culture which are also abstract. However both are necessary for society. Sociology aims at exact description by the analysis of the properties and relation of social phenomena and explanation by the formulation of general statements. Its obvious connection with what is called progress has led some thinkers to regard it as the essential feature of modem Civilization. Each pure science may have its own applied field.
Only certain kinds of behaviour engage their attention. For example, the ancient Greeks believed that the universe was run according to the whims of the gods. Postmodernism in sociology focuses on individual truths and stays away from information that is confined to cultures, races, traditions or groups, yet understands that individual experiences will always be relative and cannot yield universal truths. It is a social science like economics, political science and psychology etc. What are its basic characteristics? Today, with a lower death rate, large families have become dysfunctional and threaten the welfare of the society. Because differences is complementary to social relationship.