Studies such as these find few prototypes except in Eastern philosophy. They behaved like independent states. But once wisdom has been permanently obtained, through concentrated tHdught, the liberated person should neither always remain rapt in meditation nor wholly withdraw from active life. It is an indisputable fact, verifiable by anyone who takes time to investigate it with an open mind. The difference be- tween them lies, however, not so much in the basic philosophical doctrines as in some minor details of faith and practice.
Hence there arise attachment to such things and grief over their loss, and we become subject to bondage and misery. The —the most famous work of this period—symbolized the spirit of the creative synthesis of the age. Rather I directly present the theories and practices of this system form the original scriptures of the Mimamsa school. The root cause of bondage is ignorance: That misery and bondage are the off spring of human ignorance is the common corner-stone of all philosophical schools of India. Epistemological and logical problems are discussed in all the systems of Indian philosophy. For this purpose N philosophy discussed the possible problems of the mind and clarifies its confusions, using such processes as tarka. It is allied to the Nyaya --— -.
When philosophic knowledge about the real nature of things makes us give up our previous wrong beliefs regarding objects, our previous likes and dislikes for those objects have also to be given up. Buddhism teaches that the stream of ever changing thoughts and feelings is the ultimate reality. By meditating on the pure qualities of the liberated and those who are advanced on the path to liberation, the Jaina reminds himself daily of the possibility of attaining the high destiny. The realization of the soul was the common goal of all Indian philosophical schools. Quantum field theory and the theory of relativity are pointing toward the essential unity of all things, and the disciplines of physics and metaphysics ate thus finding common ground. The school later shifted its views and began to teach the doctrines of Brahman and freedom, allowing for the release or escape of the soul from its constraints through enlightened activity. Hence the unavoidable necessity of getting rid of ignorance if one wants to be impervious to manifold afflictions of the world.
The regions in the extreme South never came under Northern rule. The Muslim conquest created a need for orthodoxy to readjust itself to a new situation. It will be explained more fully later on. But this inference is inconclusive, because one of the premises, ' the world is a product,' »s doubtful. .
Right conduct consists in the practice of abstinence from all injury to life, from falsehood, from stealing, from sensuality and from attachment to sense objects. It has vast varieties of soil, wide differences of the frontiers with four distinct geographical divisions. About the Author As spiritual head of the Himalayan International Institute, Pandit Rajmani Tigunait, Ph. Upward social mobility within the dominant non-Indian society is not actively sought. Now we come to the second topic of grameya or the objecte of knowledge. It acquires the attribute of consciousness when it is related to any object through the senees. It is all the more difficult to practise it when false ideas about the boby, etc.
The path recommended by Buddha consists of eight steps or rules and is, therefore, called the eightfold noble path. This is a unique example of the diversity of the country with multi-climatic zones. In this inference the middle lory middle. The speculative philosophical texts contain one of the first of a universal, all-pervading, spiritual reality leading to a radical absolute nondualism, or the essential unity of matter and spirit. The philosophy of the Jainas may be conveniently discussed under three topics, viz.
Thus we find diversity in the nomenclature of the land itself. This claim amount s to the fallacy of exclusive predication ekanta-viida. The Nyiya Theory of Knowledge The Nyaya theory of reality is based on the Nyaya theory of knowledge. Indian thinkers tried to visualize the ultimate truth by different means and the philosophical systems developed as a consequence of such endeavours. But this should not make us think, as we do. Philosophy springs from spiritual disquiet at the existing order of things.
Freethinking sages of ancient India speculated independently about various fundamental questions relating to human life and its destiny. Buddha began his philosophy by saying there is suffering, next he dictated that there is a cause for it, there is a state in which suffering ceases and finally there is a way to attain freedom from the pain. The reader who is already familiar with the system described - Buddhism, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya, Yoga, , and Vedanta - will enjoy a refreshingly clear and lively treatment of these subjects. The respect and interest that the learned author has for each system is apparent in the skill and enthusiasm with which he explains them. Still such knowledge cannot be said to be absolutely immediate, because even here the soul knows through the medium of something Two kinds of inline- else, namely, the senses or manas. The latter is generally called a substance dravya.
On the basis of these three kinds of knowledge, the Jainas form their view of the universe. Or, as Kant would say, it is God who combines happiness with virtue and misery with vice. Samkhya philosophy explains the dynamics of the body and nature of mind. The Jajnas do not believe in God. Mimamsa - Jamini was the founder of this system that accepts the Veda as the final authority on all questions. Though these systems start from authority, the theories they develop are supported also by such strong indepen- dent arguments that even if we withdraw the support of authority, the theories can stand well and compare favourably with any theory established elsewhere on independent reasoning alone. The Bu dtlhistr-faa l e iKjB kn owledge The Buddhut metbed.
In matters of diet and mode of living Indians also show extreme diversities. Heart touching feelings are offered to my bellowed wife. Almost all the Indian philosophers believe in the theory of karma. ° c Liberation is regarded tion of liberation received, of course, as the highest good. The modern western approach addresses the problem from an objective, theoretical and pluralistic standpoint whereas the ancient eastern approach is more subjective experiential and holistic. This Jaina view is quite in keeping with the view accepted bv Western logicians gener- taSiba.