It is safe to assume, then that both traditional and modern subject matter would be found in the existentialist schools. Choice is what often leads to self-fulfillment. Socratic Method encourages free and fearless questioning and is relied upon dialogue and direct communication. In this way self-evaluation is the beginning and end of the learning process, as learning proceeds, child is freely growing, fearless, understanding individual. It is a philosophy of existence in which, between two nothings, we are given parenthetically life and the world, which is not a life or the world but a mirage of phenomenon that meet in a shiver of anxiety, in which the most exalted word of liberation lies in the recognition that the mirage is a mirage of nothingness. Personal Reading: Existentialists advocate personal reading, as they say, it provides the pupils authentic freedom to inspire their ingenuity.
Criticizing the prevailing concepts of education, as education for complete living, for life, for freedom and happiness, existentialists present a new concept of education-education for death. This can be very difficult at times, largely due to the fact that this field of , like many, is a bit abstract. So, it is a mistake to draw a final conclusion that it is a full-fledged philosophy. I mean to tell you! Primary emphasis must always be on the child, as learner and not on the learning programmed. Deny, if you can, the dreadful similarity between the mass education of children in a school and the mass production of goods in a factory. This response is probably correct as far as education in general is concerned, since the broad meaning of education includes more than schooling. Democratic Ideals in Existentialist Philosophy: Existentialism believes in democracy and affirms that democratic ideals should pervade the entire atmosphere of the school.
View on Man: For the existential philosophers, man in the universe is not complete. Personal identity may reference historical, sociological, religious and biological frameworks, An important characteristic of a teacher is that they have the ability to make judgments with regards to what is worthwhile and valuable in them and in others. . Despite the diversity which may be found among existential writers there are common existential principles which can be identified which have special relevance for those who hope to arrive at a more effective teaching approach through the medium of existentialism. In other words, this philosophy places a high premium upon the man the centre of attraction of the society. Mind is the Source of All Forms of Knowledge: Existentialists believe that mind is the spring of all knowledge.
During the play, their conversations consist mostly of one-liners, repetitive and often covering mundane and superficial topics that never go anywhere. It is up to the individual to build a reality in which he or she feels important and fulfilled, and accomplishing this is what brings a life meaning or allows a person to feel sorrowful and empty. Learning is self-paced, self directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. Whether being taught as part of a or embodied by a teacher or student, there is no doubt that this philosophical outlook has ties with the educational system. He must make his children think about the problems of life.
Whereas in pragmatism the teacher remains in the background mostly as observer or guide, the teacher in existentialism initiates the act of education and influences the lives of his students through his own life. There is one feature of the existentialist curriculum which should differentiate it sharply from most existing elementary, secondary, and college programs. Existence precedes essence -Existentialism is a revolt against any kind of determinism and an affirmation of the free nature of man. Further critics argue that certain concepts in existentialism are yet to be clear. Thus, existentialists believe that reality is a state of becoming and individual alone creates values. Methods of teaching must develop the creative abilities in children.
The Meaning of Life and Other Essays. And thus the relationships between the individual students and the school programmed become an impersonal one. First of all, the existentialist does not concern himself with problems concerning the nature, origin, and destiny of the physical universe. Man experiences the truth within him. It should be designed in such a way that it will provide every sort of experiences which constitute his life.
Socratic Approach: Existentialists favour the Socratic approach to teaching as Socratic Method is personal, intimate and explanatory. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Inc. In light of the large number of casualties, the Holocaust and the use of the first atomic bomb, post-war writers in particular found societal rules and views especially unreliable. The teacher is very active and welcomes challenges to his ideas from the students. Existentialism in education The philosophy of existentialism has not displayed any particular interest in education. He cannot transcend this situation. This is called an existential crisis.
While mathematicians and scientists explored the natural laws of the universe, religious people and theologians discussed God's expectations for a good life and the human soul. Thus each child can grow to understand his own needs and values and take charge of the experiences for changing him. Freedom, choice, and responsibility form a complex interrelation in existentialist philosophy. Human existence and the value related to it is the primary factor in education. Together they can liberate us from our indurated habits. It's also apparent that this is a controversial subject. Perhaps this state of affairs is due to the fact that most existentialists have given no serious consideration to the development of the educational implications of their fundamental philosophical tenets.