Manifest functions are the known or recognized and also intended consequences of any type of social pattern while the latent functions are those who are unclear or unrecognized and have unintended consequences. In fact, many of the evolution models mentioned earlier show this kind of behaviour. There is a greater mobility of population today than that was in the nineteenth or twentieth century because of the modem rapid means of transport. Still, certain general formal principles always have to be considered. According to symbolic interactionist Erving Goffman, individuals in society are similar to actors on a stage, they are constantly acting in attempts to manage the impressions they give off. These examples embody very different causal mechanisms; but each represents a case in which the variable in question temperature or population size oscillates around the equilibrium value determined by the features of the environment and the features of the adjustment mechanisms.
These are paradigmatic examples of the extremely long periods of stasis in the evolution of living forms, although gradual evolution can be illustrated with equivalent examples. Ogbum gives many illustrations of this kind. Like Karl Marx George Simmel too stressed the importance of conflict in social change. Within the field of organizational behavior, Lichtenstein 1995 argued that that self-organization theory could be a more acceptable framework with greater explanatory power. For Marx, the stage of technological development determines the mode of production and the relationships and the institutions that constitute the economic system. There is no place of repetition of the same stage in this theory. The model of dynamic equilibrium has become a tool for structural-functional analysis in bourgeois sociology, where the idea of equilibrium assumes a hidden conservative ideological significance.
Durkheim believed that this second type always evolved from and succeeded the first as the degree of specialisation, the division of labour, increased. Further testing of the models is, however, required before firm conclusions can be drawn. He saw human societies as progressing into using scientific methods. Instead of viewing civilization into the terms of development and decline he proposed that they alternate of fluctuate between two cultural extremes: the sensate and the ideational. Some students of cultural change, however, maintain that the basic tendencies in social and cultural systems are toward change rather than toward states of equilibrium see. And individuals' habitation decisions are influenced in a way that reinforces the topology and size hierarchy of the central place system. The functionalist view looks at society altogether as well as its interrelated parts and how they maintain the whole Anthropological Theories.
Evolutionary Theory : Despite the wide variety in the possible directions change may take, various generalisations have been set forth. Computers have affected almost all aspects of our life from reservations at the railway ticket window or registration for hospitals or colleges to the maintenance of accounts in banks and large business corporations. Van den Berghe states that according to functional theory change may come from three main sources: 1. The notion of evolution came into social sciences from the theories of biological evolution. Social change can be understood by looking at change in meanings and definitions. Morgan, who sought to prove that all societies went through fixed stages of development each succeeding the other, from savagery through barbarism to civilisation. For the purpose of analyzing the manifest functions of any type of social institution, it is necessary to study its contribution to the continuation of a group, community, or society.
It is practical, hedonistic, sensual and materialistic. As a result, policy is characterized by long periods of stability, punctuated by large—though less frequent—changes due to large shifts in society or government. It is the opposite of the sensate culture. The achievements of a civilization consist of its successful responses to the challenges; if cannot mount an effective response it dies. The nature of responses determines the society's fate. Theories of social change can be divided into two groups: 1 Theories relating to the direction of social change: Various types of evolutionary theories, and cyclical theory.
This indicates that it does not suffice to define the objective of a planned change in group performance as the reaching of a different level. Ethnomethodology recognizes social interaction not as a process that is placed on society, but as a practice that should be constantly worked at so that one may more effectively define situations and operate with more ease Scott 2009:20. . A variety of reasons have been offered throughout history to explain why social change occurs. Conflict theories: Whereas the equilibrium theories emphasize the stabilizing processes at work in social systems the so-called conflict theories highlight the forces producing instability, struggle and social disorganization.
The trajectory of a fly ball is not an equilibrium outcome, but rather the direct causal consequence of the collision between bat and ball. The pendulum of a clock swings with the passage of time, but ultimately it comes to its original position and re-proceeds to its previous journey. They may come from outside the society through contact with other societies. The world does not consist of permanent stable things with definite properties but of unending processes of nature in which things go through a change of coming into being and passing away. Now, all members of society would share the same relationship to the forces of production. Those who were fascinated by this theory applied it to the human society and argued that societies must have evolved from the simple and primitive to that of too complex and advanced such as the western society. According to him conflict is a permanent feature of society and not just a temporary event.
Does a high level of technology increase happiness and improve our family life? Praxis is the interface between operating structures and purposely acting agents, i. Thus, conflict is associated with all types of social change in some way or other. For instance, it required no change in technology to bring about a democratic society in India. These influence almost all aspects of our life and culture. One reason why group decision facilitates change is illustrated by Willerman.