Anal Stage 1-3 years The libido now becomes focused on the anus, and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. In the genital stage, these urges are now directed toward partners of the opposite sex who are similar in age. Stage Age Range Erogenous zone Consequences of psychologic fixation Oral Birth—1 year Orally aggressive: chewing gum and the ends of pencils, etc. Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. This attachment or lack thereof has lifelong implications for the child as he or she reaches adulthood. Freud's theory also stressed the importance of early experiences on development. The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult.
In this study, Ainsworth placed children between the ages of 1 and 2 in unfamiliar situations to assess the type and level of their attachment to their caregivers. The instinctual tendency of young infants to suckle during this stage is described as a manifestation of the need to satisfy this pleasure center. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. During the five psychosexual stages, which are the oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stages, the erogenous zone associated with each stage serves as a source of pleasure. Freud believed that girls experienced penis envy and their love for their father becomes erotic and envious, wishing they had a penis of her own. She argued that women are not deficient in their moral reasoning and instead proposed that males and females reason differently: girls and women focus more on staying connected and maintaining interpersonal relationships.
Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure like during the phallic stage. According to Freud, out of fear of castration and due to the strong competition of his father, boys eventually decide to identify with him rather than fight him. For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. If not satisfactorily met there is the likelihood of developing negative oral habits or behaviors. If the adult did not successfully complete a stage, fixation may occur later in life.
Instead, Horney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children, a concept she referred to as womb envy. Phallic Stage ages three to six. Upon discovering this, he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls. The final, genital stage involves the return of sexual impulses, leading to appropriate social behavior if the initial stages were successful or depraved sexual behavior if they were not.
In the phallic stage, Freud proposed that preschoolers began to become aware of their genitals. The sexual and aggressive drives are less active and there is little in the way of psychosexual conflict. Preoperational Stage The preoperational stage occurs from age 2 to age 7. This is achieved through majority decision and inevitable compromise. According to the famous psychoanalyst , children go through a series of psychosexual stages that lead to the development of the adult personality. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs.
Boys experience castration anxiety and girls suffer penis envy. On the other hand, children whose parents are too lenient during this phase may grow up to become messy and disorganized. During this stage, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex and goes from masturbation or self-pleasuring instinct to intercourse with another person. Although Freud Strongly disagreed with this, it has been termed the Electra Complex by more recent psychoanalysts. During this stage, the teenager has overcome latency, made associations with one gender or the other, and now seeks out pleasure through sexual contact with others. Younger children are ruled by the , which demands immediate satisfaction of the most basic needs and wants. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands.
Genital Stage puberty on The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on the earlier work of cognitive theorist Jean Piaget to explain the moral development of children. The superego, or conscience, develops through interactions with others mainly parents who want the child to conform to the norms of society. People now believe that some laws are unjust and should be changed or eliminated. It also fails to account for inconsistencies within moral judgments. In 1969 Bowlby studied mother-infant interactions and concluded that infant smiling, babbling, crying, and cooing are built-in mechanisms to encourage parents to attach to, and thereby care for, the infant.
The task is to learn how to add something constructive to life and society. In contrast, children struggle with deductive reasoning, which involves using a generalized principle in order to try to predict the outcome of an event. The anthropologist 's studies of the challenged the Freudian proposal that psychosexual development e. The second defense mechanism is , by which the child incorporates, to his or her ego, the personality characteristics of the same-sex parent; in so adapting, the boy diminishes his , because his likeness to father protects him from father's wrath as a rival for mother; by so adapting, the girl facilitates identifying with mother, who understands that, in being females, neither of them possesses a penis, and thus they are not antagonists. The last stage is the genital stage, which lasts from puberty to death.