What view do they want them to adopt? You may want to read any difficult portions again slowly, with a dictionary at hand. Jupiter Hammon was the first published African American poet. When you read historical documents, you will need to identify what cues if any they use. These are the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia, an essential guide to interpreting the intent of the Framers. Peter Bulkely 1651 1651 Laws regarding what one may and may not wear. There may be helpful footnotes. But be careful not to change too many words! If you have questions, please consult your instructor or librarian.
Classical Literature Having Significant Influence Upon the American Colonists , Most of the founding fathers in America were thorougly familiar with these Greco-Roman authors: e. Southeastern Reporter, 2d Series So. The task for the sophisticated reader is to transform old, dead text into a live voice. As in the example above, the abbreviated title of the reporter will be found in the citation. Common Pitfalls For teachers, this process takes time. What arguments do they employ to convince their audience? I use the first two and the last two as synonyms.
Whether you were analyzing a primary source for a class discussion, an essay, or for your own personal use, you can use what you learned about the reliability of the source to write or speak about it in a more informed way. You're likely to encounter materials that are incomplete or have been partially destroyed,; for example, an old may not list the author's name or a diary entry might not have a date. If an author is using an unfamiliar word often, chances are it is an important clue to their thinking: Use a dictionary. Why is the person significant? Here, as a watershed in the history of medical science in America, Mather takes a position in favor of inoculation. Most of John Locke's Second Treatise on Government is reflective of Lex Rex.
Likewise the historian looks for evidence such as letters, diaries, court documents, objects used by the people being studied, and buildings where the people lived. A model for a federal system of government for several Native American nations, Franklin lauded the Iroquois for their ability to confederate. Long title is For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. In the Classroom Introduce the activity Give a copy of the primary document to each student. Compare with other contemporary sources Part of the fun of history is sorting through the wide variety of voices and opinions that shape our view of historical events. This illustrates that the Revolution was not only about stamps and taxes but also about religious liberty.
The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. What do I know and what can I guess? A paper should not be just a collection of others' ideas and facts. An eyewitness history of the first English settlers of New England. As you read and use these techniques, figure out which ones work for you and which ones do not. In this citation 42 is the Title of the Code where this statute can be found. Have I considered how this context affects the message? Students should write in the margins as they read to answer key questions.
Once you think you have a good idea what the author is saying, you should confirm that your theory is correct. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2013. Behind those streamlined narratives are hundreds of messy sources. In an utterly neutral document, the creator is not aware that she or he has any special stake in the construction and content of the document. It was not a legal code in the modern sense. Click the text next to the second image to view the actual document. How Often Should I Quote? In addition to skimming for structure and main ideas, you should also read the whole piece closely, paying careful attention to difficult sections.
As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. P for Purpose The first step in placing a document in context is to ask why the author wrote this particular text. Sometimes the stake the author has is the most interesting part of a document. Citing a primary source document, from an archives, varies depending on the preference of your instructor, the publication you are submitting the article, or the discipline in which you are operating. It should also be clear that individual texts themselves may have portions that are more reliable and credible than others. This document begins with Columbus' statement that the reason why Isabella sponsored his voyage was for the sake of going to India to convert Khan to Roman Catholicism. But fast reading is poison when confronting a document that contains unfamiliar ideas, uses obscure words, or follows an unfamiliar style.
In this example, Hebb and Severson are the parties in the case. This invaluable collection of documents tells what took place in Philadelphia as the United States was being birthed. The historians primary source is evidence from the past. Expanding upon Calvin's political resistance theory set forth in the final chapters of his Institutes, this work by Calvin's successor in Geneva, Theodore Beza, was published in response to the growing tensions between Protestant and Catholic in France, which culminated in the St. This time students are reading to examine how the argument is constructed.
Wineburg, Sam, Daisy Martin, and Chauncey Monte-Sano. Was it a personal diary intended to be kept private? Then read the questions for analyzing primary sources. Although this was written around 1640 in defense of Charles I's divine right, it was not published until 1680. Charles did not receive this complaint warmly. Participating in this Synod moderated by Gomarus was the leader of the Pilgrims, as well as William Ames the leading Puritan theologian of the day. Circular Reading Have I reviewed the writing after my first reading? This process is all about your willingness and ability to ask questions of the material, imagine possible answers, and explain your reasoning.