Thirdly, another reason that enabled him to conquer the empire was his translators, namely Marina and Geronimo de Aguilar. He did it through a combination of luck, courage, political savvy and advanced tactics and weapons. The Spanish tried to have Motecuhzoma calm the populace, but he was struck in the head by a thrown rock and killed. This gave Spaniards, with their history of horsemanship from years of cattle herding, not only a tactical advantage, but a psychological edge over the Incan population, who had never seen this before. Charles made him Marqués del Valle but refused to name him governor because of his quarrels with Velázquez and others. Eventually, Cortés' Spanish wife came to Mexico. After a short warring period with the tabascans they exchanged gifts with one and other.
They were not farmers or tradesmen, but soldiers, slavers, and mercenaries who abhorred honest work. Greatly relieved at having cheated death, the surviving conspirators went out of their way to demonstrate loyalty. Some factors that helped him: -He was welcomed by the Aztec emperor, who later was taken prisoner by him -A lot of them died because of the new diseases from Europe -He raised an army adding every culture oppressed … by the Aztecs -Hi had superior firepower and tactics: as Tenochtitlan city was founded over a lake with only a few bridges as connection to mainland he sieged the city until everyone died of starvation. In a very abridged version, with the use of guns and germs. Smallpox had ravaged the populations of Hispaniola and Cuba and indeed had equally disastrous effects on the mainland, killing an estimated 20 to 40 percent of the population of central Mexico. The translation process worked in two stages, firstly Marina translated the local language into a form that Aguilar could understand, then secondly Aguilar translated it into Spanish for Cortes.
In addition, Spaniard … s spread smallpoxand other European diseases which killed and lessen the number ofthe Aztec people. Cortés and his men took King Montezuma captive. Fortuneately for Cortes the Aztec were the big bullies in the area and everyone around them hated them. It was a stroke of genius. By the time Cortés returned in the spring of 1521 for the final assault, however, the city had been largely free of the disease for six months. Even cities within the Valley of Mexico, the heart of the empire, were simmering cauldrons of potential revolt.
Jessie is finishing her master's degree in nonfiction writing at George Mason University and holds a bachelor of arts degree from Kenyon College. Cortés could never have pulled off the defeat of the without a great deal of good luck. Those alliances gave Cortez supplies and warriors. A conquistador is basically a Spanish conqueror. On the way to Tenochtitlán, he clashed with local Indians, but many of these people, including the nation of , became his allies after learning of his plan to conquer their hated Aztec rulers.
These diseases highly devastated the Aztecs. Spain would go on to conquer most of South America. The Aztec Empire the Mexica The , like any proper empire needed to expand in order to grow and survive. The fact that they instead joined forces with the invaders who promised an end to Aztec subjugation is clear evidence of the sociopolitical weaknesses embedded in the Aztec high command. Cortés bought both ship and cargo, then induced its adventurous crew to join his expedition. His mistress, Marina, was a great help in this endeavor and succeeded in convincing Montezuma to cooperate fully. Most of the conquistadors did receive large tracts of land, however.
Such deficiencies allowed the conquistadors to triumph even when outnumbered by as much as 100-to-1. He engaged hundreds of thousands of determined enemies on their home ground with only fitful opportunities for reinforcement and resupply. Cortez created alliances with some of the local tribes including the Totonac and the Tlaxcalans. Look at the Battle of Isandlwana in the Anglo-Zulu War when half naked Zulus armed with animal skin shields, spears, and wooden clubs beat a modernized British Army with rifles, machine guns, artillery, and rocket launchers. Tenochtitlán was founded in 1325 A. It is estimated that up to 90 percent of the native population died from smallpox, measles and similar illnesses within the first decades after contact.
The Aztecs were used to loose formations in battle; their primary objective had always been to capture a valiant opponent alive so that they might be later ritually sacrificed, and warfare was highly ritualised with precise moments for starting and ending. Miguel Leon-Portilla, The Broken Spears, Beacon Press, 2006. Meanwhile, Hernán Cortés, a young Spanish-born noble, came to Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1504. Certainly they saw no perceptible drop in ferocity or numbers among the resistance. Cortez would not believ … e the Aztecs when they told him they had no gold. Second, they enlisted the help of localtribes who were being oppressed by the mo … re powerful Aztecs: thisindigenous help was tremendously valuable to the Spanishconquerors. The Tlaxcalans had been at war with the Aztecs for almost a century, and to the Tlaxcalans the Spanish represented their only hope of breaking the power of Mexico.
They found that the city's society had crumpled. He defeated Narváez and added his men to his own. However, against that it is certainly true that the Spanish had already shown their military prowess and the devastating effectiveness of their superior weaponry - cannons, firearms and crossbows - in quickly defeating a force of Otomi-Tlaxcalan, and they had also taken quick and ruthless reprisals against a treacherous plot by the Cholollan. The spanish were all ready used to their own diseases. Time and again, the Tlaxcalan warriors and porters which accompanied Cortes' expedition would prove their value. Cortes had seen that he was responsible for his great victory over the Aztecs. A fierce ended in Cortés taking control of the , which he then set fire to, horrifying the population.
This sent a powerful message to the rest of Mesoamerica not to trifle with the Spanish. Malintzinm or Malinche is considered the mother and icon of the mixed races, and representative of the Mexican nationality. Since 1492, when Christopher Columbus discovered the New World, the Spanish had fairly thoroughly explored the Caribbean by 1518. In 1504, at age 19, Cortés set sail for the New World. Fundamentally the two forces did not understand each other, and that gulf between them sealed the Aztec downfall.