The Supreme Court of India, in its order, includes executive actions and technical details of environmental actions to be implemented. This new participatory management approach elevated the local people from the receivers of some benefits from forest area to the level of co-managers along with the forest personnel over a designated area of forest. Vulnerable species are naturally rare or have been locally depleted by human activities to a level that puts them at risk. Access to Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution and National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development is also available. The main plank of the revised forest policy of 1988 is protection, conservation and development of forests. While the damage caused by such predators as wild pigs, game and porcupine cannot be denied, the elimination of their natural enemies tends to multiply them. Environmentalists, however, found certain critical gaps in it.
India's judicial activism on environmental issues has, some suggest, delivered positive effects to the Indian experience. Small-scale Forestry 2011 10: 83. Steps necessary to encourage them to do so must be taken. The need to review the situation and to evolve, for the future, a new strategy of forest conservation has become imperative. National Community Forest Management Mission for participatory forest management 5. The 1999 Forest Survey of India report indicates that the country's forest cover is 19. Forest protection committee meetings, divisional and state level working group meetings will become the laboratories for an evolving process.
Proceedings of the 16th Commonwealth conference in Perth, p29-37. Afforestation in catchment areas for river rejuvenation and water recycling 6. Openness is important for these prey species watching out for predators. The ecosystem-based management seeks to manage forests in a holistic and integrated manner where not only trees but also an entire ecosystem with both its biotic and abiotic components are managed with a view to maintain its ecological integrity while ensuring flow of ecosystem goods and services on a sustainable basis for the present and future generations. The National Forest Policy requires, therefore, an immediate and speedy programme for the reconditioning of the mountainous regions, river valleys, and coastal lands by establishing protective forests over larger areas, and preserving the existing ones.
The primary reasons of extinction of wildlife are as follows: i Destruction of their natural habitats due to expanding agriculture, urbanisation and industrialisation. Public interest cases are repeatedly filed to block infrastructure projects aimed at solving environmental issues in India, such as but not limiting to water works, expressways, land acquisition for projects, and electricity power generation projects. Together we build journalism that is independent, credible and fearless. The Himalayan Mountain System: This region is again divided into the following three regions with their characteristic wildlife: a The Himalaya Foothills: Big mammals of north India like elephant, sambar, swamp deer, cheetal, hog deer, great Indian one-horned rhinoceros, wild buffalo, golden langur, etc. In any case, the fuel, fodder and timber requirements of the local population should not be sacrificed for this purpose. To wean the aborigines, who eke out a precarious living from axe-cultivation moving from area to area, away from their age-old and wasteful practices, requires persuasion, not coercion; a missionary, not an authoritarian approach. Checking soil erosion and denudation in catchment areas of rivers, lakes and reservoirs; 4.
Eco-development Scheme: An eco- development scheme in and around national parks and sanctuaries including tiger reserves was also launched to provide alternate sources of sustenance to the communities living at the fringes of national parks and sanctuaries including tiger reserves, to improve the ecological productivity of the buffer zones of protected areas through the involvement of these communities in protecting these sanctuaries and national parks and their wildlife; through a well-designed package of activities aimed at providing sustenance to the forest side communities and ameliorating their hardships to minimise conflicts between those communities and the protection staffs. Promotion of agro-forestry is necessary which inter alia will reduce the pressure on natural forests thus conserving the forest biodiversity. This anti-people provision must be resisted to save our forests and forest-dependent people! It is necessary, therefore, that bird and animal life should be controlled by special laws and rare fauna preserved by setting up sanctuaries and large-scale national parks. Details on area under forests, afforestation, social forestry, farm forestry, management of state forests, wildlife conversation, tribal people, etc. The traditional forest management in the absence of adequate understanding of the complex tropical ecosystems prescribed removal of increment of wood keeping in view only one or two economically important species.
Users can get to know of the Act issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, amendments to the Act, notifications covering list of officers authorized to take. Monitoring and management of population of wildlife would be adopted on a longterm basis within and outside forests for maintaining the balance. This paper also analyzes forest cover trends at state level and assesses the likelihood of meeting the prescribed policy targets under present perspective of land use practices. Peninsular Indian Sub-region: This is a true home of Indian wildlife with two distinct zones a peninsular India and its extension into the drainage basin of the Ganges river system, and b desert region of Rajasthan. The policy recommends contracts between forest-dependent industries and farmers to fix price and quantity to ensure supply for the wood industry. Their domestic requirements of fuelwood, fodder, minor forest produce and construction timber should be the first charge on forest produce. It is essential, therefore, to inculcate in the people, a direct interest in forests, their development and conservation, and to make them conscious of the value of trees, wildlife and nature in general.
Himalayan peaks in eastern India on a day without haze. The rights and concessions enjoyed by them should be fully protected. Use of state-of-the-art technology which causes minimum pollution and damage should be promoted. The major challenge facing the sector today is the restoration of such degraded forests at a speed that these do not become irrecoverable. Stall-feeding of cattle should be encouraged. The foundation of scientific forestry was laid when Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester was appointed as the first Inspector General of Forests in 1864 and passing of the First Indian Forest Act in 1865. The progressive denudation of hill sides with serious repercussions on the fertility of the land, and the growing erosion along the banks of rivers, of which the Yamuna, the Chambal, the Mahi, the Narmada, the Kosi, and the Damodar are notorious examples, constitute the major considerations demanding immediate attention.
In the industrially advanced countries, forestry has long been a profitable proposition. The policy also desired to stimulate partnerships of different stakeholders, i. Special conservation areas, young plantations and regeneration areas should be fully protected. The above scenario, clearly indicates that forest and community land are subjected to unsustainable biomass withdrawals. In 1988, a new Forest Policy was adopted, which aimed at maintenance of environmental and ecological stability and the motivation of the people to increase and protect forests.
Under the provisions of this Act, prior approval of the Central government is required for diversion of forest land to non-forest purposes. Tropical Evergreen Forest Region or Indo-Malayan Sub-region: The region with heavy rainfall is very rich in animals. The elephant habitat has shrunk over the years, and poaching for elephant tusks has endangered the species, especially in southern India. In other cases, the interpretations and directives have preserved industry protection, labour practices and highly polluting state-owned companies detrimental to environmental quality of India. But the simple and obvious way of regulating and controlling grazing as also improving the quality both of grazing and cattle themselves, is to institute a reasonable fee for the privilege of grazing. Adequate grazing fees should be levied to discourage people in forest areas from maintaining large herds of non-essential livestock.
Even government-led bodies have repeatedly pointed out that natural non-forest lands were important ecosystems in their own right. About 55% of the total forest area belongs to moderately dense and very dense category and thus are in a fairly good condition. While special attention should be given to the following: 1. They will need to develop and effectively adopt more flexible planning processes which are truly participatory and at the same time completely integrated into the overall working plan objectives. It submitted its report in March 2006. Forests should not be looked upon as a source of revenue. This is attributable to relentless pressures arising from ever-increasing demand for fuelwood, fodder and timber; inadequacy of protection measures; diversion of forest lands to non-forest uses without ensuring compensatory afforestation and essential environmental safeguards; and the tendency to look upon forests as revenue earning resource.