They feared that these practices would upset the social and religious order of the traditional Indian society. The first sign of unrest appeared in 1857 at Barrack-pore in Bengal. Bahadur Shah was captured, tried and deported to Burma where he died in 1862. While one group termed it Great Revolt, another group prefer to call it Sepoy Mutiny. Although serious and, in some cases, long drawn, these did not pose any serious threat to the existence of the British Empire.
The social reforms introduced by the British made some of the people angry. The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. According to them, the Hindus and Muslims participated equally in the revolt and displayed a new bond of unity against the British. The Civil Service Act was passed which provided for competitive examination of 1861 transferred the European troops of the company to the crown. This was announced by Lord Canning at a Durbar in Allahabad in aproclamation issued on 1 November 1858 in the name of the Queen.
The rebellion In late March 1857 a sepoy named attacked British officers at the military garrison in. The revolt was mainly confined to the Doab region. The humanitarian movement led to reforms that went deeper than the political superstructure. He had convened the Indian National Conference 1883 which merged with the Indian National Congress in l886. Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi were annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse. Though the revolt was started by the Indian soldiers in the service of the East India Company, it soon proliferated all over the country. This rumour sparked off fire of discontent against the British in the form of the revolt.
He fought guerilla war against the British. Lucknow : Lucknow was the capital of Awadh. But by September 1857, the British reoccupied Delhi. They dreaded sea voyage and considered it against their customs. The Legislative Council of 1853 had contained only Europeans and had arrogantly behaved as if it were a full-fledged parliament.
The British looked down upon the Indians as inferior race and discriminated against them racially. The British also took many steps to employ members of higher castes and rulers in the government. They were shocked when a law was passed allowing Hindu converts to Christianity to inherit their ancestral property. It is known as India's First War of Independence. . The seizure of Delhi provided a focus and set the pattern for the whole mutiny, which then spread throughout northern India.
Bengal, Ayodhya, Allhabad, Kanpur, Aligarh, Rohilakhand, Daob, Bundelakhand, Central India, Bihar and East Punjab experienced the tremors of revolt. The British Government now showed its interest in the political affairs of the country. Many of the native rulers and the big zamindars refused to join the revolt against the British. It was attended by 72 delegates from all over India. It drew its strength from several elements of discontent against British rule. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was regarded as the political guru of Gandhi. He joined the revolt primarily because he was deprived of his pension by the British.
The rebels who revolted in Banaras were crushed by Colonel Neills. Peasants had to pay even higher revenue and additional taxes were imposed. In fact, the British Government was forced to appoint the Welby Commission, with Dadabhai as the first Indian as its member, to enquire into the matter. They popularized ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism, nationalism and trained civilians in the art of political work. The only demand of the Congress granted by the British was the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
The leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, and Theosophical Society generated a feeling of regard for and pride in the motherland. This included assessing 1857 against the colonial backdrop, examining aspects of participation and focussing in a major way on the internal contradictions. It is in this context that the spirit of Indian Nationalism has often been identified as agrarian in nature. Subsequently there emerged a group of freedom fighters with a whole new set of ideas and principles, The Extremists. Consequently, the country was reduced to poverty as traditional handicrafts and industries were ruined. The British did not even spare the Indian soldiers. The Meerut Mutiny May 9, 1857 marked the beginning of the Revolt of 1857.