The following quote adapted from an article in the Independent in December 2002 sums up the issue quite well. If national income has risen by 10%, but population has also risen by 10%, the average person is no better- off. Wages and Salaries paid in Kind: Another problem arises with regard to wages and salaries paid in kind to the employees in the form of free food, lodging, dress and other amenities. A reason why we need to collect national income figures is to provide an accurate estimate of changes in the volume of output produced… 1160 Words 5 Pages following figures refer to elements in its national income accounts. The national income of India exceeds that of Canada but no on would claim that India was a better place to live for the typical member of the population. The whole of the personal income cannot be spent on consumption, because it is the income that accrues before direct taxes have actually been paid. They also include corporate profits and taxes on production and import.
Thus we find that the total gross value added of an economy equals the value of its gross domestic product. These sectors generate factor incomes. Gross National Happiness Index The takes a holistic and psychology based approach to measuring social welfare. Third, it is again not possible to have a correct estimation of national income because many of the commodities produced are not marketed and the producer either keeps the produce for self-consumption or exchanges it for other commodities. The below graph represents the National Income Trend of India for the period of 1950 — 2011. If the farmer were to sell his entire produce in the market, he will have to buy what he needs for self-consumption out of his money income. National income often rises in time of war, or the threat of war, because money is spent on weapons.
As a result the concept does not account for various important factors that influence social welfare. The data on factor incomes generated by these sectors can be used to measure their relative contributions to national income. If they are included every time they are bought and sold, national income would increase many times. Again, it often happens that the cost of production of a commodity to the producer is higher than a price of a similar commodity in the market. But expenses on defence equipment are treated as consumption expenditure because they are consumed during a war as they are destroyed or become obsolete.
Methods used to measure National Income Calculating National Income There are various methods for calculating the national income such as production method, income method, expenditure method etc. If an overcoat costs Rs. This is the name given to work that is not reported to the authorities. However, it is important to note that retained earnings of foreign enterprises owned by residents do not actually return to the residents concerned. A counter entry of the same amount is treated as a financial transaction a reinvestment of earnings abroad, in shares and other equities and not as a payment of property income.
This happens because there is a change in the intercept part of the equation. Economic Models: The economists propound short-run as well as long-run economic models or long-run investment models in which the national income data are very widely used. Third, the durable goods generally keep changing hands leading to a change in their ownership and value too. The problem is whether that part of the produce which is not sold in the market can be included in national income or not. One, it is not known whether these things were produced during the current year or the preceding years.
Illegal Activities: Income earned through illegal activities like gambling, smuggling, illicit extraction of wine, etc. Classical economics, Economics, Income 2713 Words 11 Pages U. They indicate whither the economy is marching along the path of progress. Another fallacy is to assume that correlation implies causality. Then twenty thousand dollar represents the.
This is different from the problem of small sample size outlined above. Such activities have value and satisfy the wants of the people but they are not considered productive from the point of view of society. Asset, Balance sheet, Financial statements 1153 Words 5 Pages Labor Participation Rate, Unemployment Rate and Gross National Income per capita On Total Crime Rate in the Philippines I. It is defined as a flow of output. Five of the countries shown had average trade deficits during the fourteen-year period.
First, in the present day world, so varied and numerous are the goods and services produced that it is very difficult to have a correct estimation of them. Concept of National Income:- 1. Firstly never compare exchange rates, always compare things on a 1 to 1 basis. They are the actors, dancers, doctors, singers, teachers, musicians, lawyers, barbers, etc. If each time, this wheat or its flour is taken into consideration, it will work out to Rs. Economic welfare depends to a considerable degree on the level of national income and the average standard of living of the people. Innumerable varieties of goods are produced in an economy in a year.
This is reflected in various comments on the Indian economy. Therefore, when these activities are, because of greater labor force participation, shifted to the market—as restaurant meals and semiprepared foods in grocery stores, cleaning and laundry services, and day care—the change in the value of production is overstated due to the decline in nonmarket household production. Goods meant for Self-consumption: In under-developed countries like India, farmers keep a large portion of food and other goods produced on the farm for self-consumption. Such information is highly useful for devising planning programmes. Similarly, for the purpose of arriving at the Real Per Capita Income, this very formula is used. National income of a country is calculated by following any one of the three methods. This is inevitable because measuring the economic activity of an entire country can never be done precisely.