They then use this power to make decisions and allocate resources in ways that benefit them. Some political theorists, however, argue that this is not the case. Thus, those who want to provide jobs and inexpensive natural gas are in conflict with those who wish to protect the natural environment and human health. In contrast to that perspective is the pluralist theory of government, which says that political power rests with competing interest groups who share influence in government. Power is based on command over organizational resources; the elites are those in positions of organized power. Similarly, the allocation of revenue affects the rich and the poor differently.
The oligarchic elite and the subjacent elite do not find a common set of goals. Ethnicity dominate in the power elite, with representing about 80% of the top business leaders, and about 73% of members of Congress. In fact, the republic is based upon the ideas of consent by those who are governed and individual participation. Some political theorists, however, argue that a minority of citizens, economic and political elite, control the government and others have no influence. Other groups, however, are strongly against this. This means control over means of communication like the news and what is taught in the classrooms.
These questions are the focus of much research on stratification and social inequality. Something has to be trade-off to get one thing to be regarded as a decision to benefit all. The term Elite refers to those who excel. The basis for membership of a power elite is institutional power, namely an influential position within a prominent private or public organization. The United States also has many different levels and branches of government that any citizen or group might approach.
Concept of Political Elite: Who are the elite? Pareto, Vilfredo 1935 The Mind and Society. The basic idea behind consequentialism is the question of who would want to do anything else besides produces the maximum amount of goodness? The former seek to reconstruct society by attempting to mobilise and tap available resources and political energies. Project: Achieving the Dream Grant. The Elite always works in the interest of those from whom it derives its power and authority but still it works against democracy because it believes in the rule of the few. This power can be executed when people join trade unions and other pressure groups.
Michels: Iron law of oligarchy T endency for most social and political organizations to be run by a few individuals who make most of the decisions O ligarchy arises out of complexity and size of organization — the organizational form - where there is a delegation of power in terms of specialized expertise initially for efficiency and stability but transformed into self-serving conservative Elite S ocial organization and division of labour are key variables H ave combination of apathy, insufficient time, lack of expertise and need for guidance of the masses and the natural greed for power of the Elites Elites have resources of information and control its flow, credibility and prestige and cohesive organization T hree basic principles of Elite formulation that take place within bureaucratic structure of political organization — the need for specialized staff, facilities, and above all leaders; the utilization of such specialized facilities by leaders within these organizations; and, the psychological attributes of the leaders e. Governmental responsiveness to interest groups, even when all are combined, do not represent the true majority view of the people—only the view of those organized individuals. In his book, The Power Elite, Mills argued that government was controlled by a combination of business, military, and political elites. In communist countries the wealth has no role to play. By the 1950s there was a significant shift in power from Congress to the executive branch, reflecting an expansion of government that required a complex information-gathering and administrative capacity. Two famous name in mentioned by Manley 1983 in his article are Robert A.
Politico has three large regions that make up the country, and each region operates on a different power model. Monism states that there is one principle of rightness. Individuals in the new republic formed a government based upon consent; unfortunately, consent was not expanded to all individuals living within the borders of the new nation at the time of formation. Another study published in 2002 of power elites in the United States under President in office 2001-2009 identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals. Outside government, extremely wealthy billionaires can often be found on different sides of the issues, such as George Soros supporting Democrats and Sheldon Adelson supporting Republicans.
Constitution understood that citizens might band together in organized groups to attempt to influence elected representatives as they develop rules and laws. This type of interaction between the old and the new elite implies a dilution of the pure force theory group of elite or that the position of the old elite depended upon some sort of bargain. These two tenets are ideologically allied but logically separable. . The same social processes that had concentrated political power had created a society of increasingly fragmented individuals whose lives and interests were shaped for them from above.
During 19 months, the elite cheered like a mob and abdicated its responsibility of giving sober counsel to the government and to the nation. Monism, pluralism, and particularism are three different ideas about how one should make decisions. An example of pluralism is if punching is wrong in a. Following independence, this pattern of elite composition has considerably changed. Their political affiliations are guided more by their particularistic loyalty rather than by their ideology commitment. Another criticism of the elite theories against the Marxian view of distribution of power is that the ruling class too large and amorphous a group to be able to effectively wield power. Thousands of interest groups exist in the United States.
Bourdieu, Pierre 1984 Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. It is necessary to consider elites and the organizations they command in their larger social and cultural context. From this perspective, modern elites are functionally necessary in a society of complex organizations and increasingly specialized occupations. One might ask: Elite power, yes, but power for what? Words and promises can never raise the standards of living of an impoverished people. Obasohan, 2009 Pluralists argue that everyone in society has a say because the state acts in the national interest.