Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. They think most employees are only out for themselves and their sole interest in the job is to earn money. McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating. Recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, yet McGregor's X-Y Theories remain guiding principles to the management to evolve processes which help in organizational development. If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs.
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y. That is, you cannot use Motivators until all the Hygiene factors are met. An outstanding title can increase tweets, Facebook Likes, and visitor traffic by 50% or more. Management can offer rewards to a worker who shows and can punish him if his performance is below standard. Theory X workers could be described as follows: - Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible - Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led - Individuals who desire security The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. According to McGregor, this is a traditional theory of what workers are like and what management must do ot motivate them.
In doing so, Employees are expected to exercise a large degree of internal motivation. Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. At some point, the theory Y shows the passion and interest of employees at work. Theory Y manager will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing themselves. An example of this could lead down to something as simple as the saying, two heads are better than one.
People who lack food or water cannot attend to justice or beauty. Additionally, theory X states that employees have a high affinity for psychological needs and other security needs which is in contrast to the assumption of theory Y which notes that employees have a high affinity for social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. He had a special interest in psychology and went to the Harvard University. The content of the book is about individual management assumptions, in relation to the human nature and the way a manager manages his or her employees. He theorized that the motivation employees use to reach self-actualization allows them to reach their full potential. X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. He based his theory on healthy, creative people who used all their talents, potential, and capabilities.
These basic needs are also called deficiency needs because if they are not met by an individual, then that person will strive to make up the deficiency. It is management's main task in such a system to maximise that commitment. Theory X assumes that individuals are base, work-shy and constantly in need of a good prod. For example in the production division, employees which are involved in manufacturing of the bottle would be only be expected to carry out their purpose of making the bottles which is a repetitive process. Therefore, the system of rewards and punishments works best for them. Theory X is the style that predominated in business after the mechanistic system of scientific management had swept everything before it in the first few decades of the 20th century. It assumes that workers: 1.
User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. This management style assumes that the typical worker has little ambition, avoids responsibility, and is individual-goal oriented. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. While there is a more personal and individualistic feel, this leaves room for error in terms of consistency and uniformity. Theory Z is often referred to as the 'Japanese' management style, which is essentially what it is. It is one of four important motivation theories you will need to know for the exam.
Theory Y — See some questions can be that easy! Douglas McGregor put forward a theory of motivation, called as theory X and theory Y. This style of management assumes that workers: 1. To buy this book, please visit our. In order to achieve the most efficient production, a combination of both theories may be appropriate. The average human being does not inherently dislike work… Man will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. When I studied for the exam, every time I saw Theory X, I got a mental picture of the giant red X from the game show Family Feud, which helped me remember X is not good.
What happens when a Y person is managed as an X person and vis versa…What are the common reactions. A hierarchical structure is needed, with narrow span of control at each level, for effective employee management. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. It suggests that threats of punishment and strict control are the ways to control the people. Neither of the two sets of assumptions is applicable fully in all situations and to all types of people.