Charlotte Perkins Gilman represented a faction of the womens movement that stressed rights and individualism over service and duty. Social reformers, like Jane Addams, and journalists, like Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel, were powerful voices for progressivism. Progressivism American Progressivism is defined as a broadly based reform movement that reached the height of influence in the early twentieth century and that was largely middle class and reformist in nature. The publication of articles and accounts of the experience in the Tribune led to the release of 12 patients who were not mentally ill, to a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution, and eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws. The union was essentially destroyed in the Red Scare after World War I. Although the African American fight to end discrimination did not lead to immediate changes in legislation, several changes did take place that impacted African Americans.
The national political leaders included Republicans , , and and Democrats , and. Lenox Hill Neighborhood House, founded in 1894; Henry Street Settlement, founded in 1893; and University Settlement House, founded in 1886 and the oldest in the United States were important sites for social reform. For Further Reading: References: Chambers, J. The curriculum aimed to cover a variety of topics, including teaching standardized way of gardening, child-rearing, cooking, cleaning, performing household maintenance, and doctoring. The old Inquisition had its rack and its thumbscrews and its instruments of torture with iron teeth.
Such scientific management applied to the domestic sphere was presented as a solution to the dilemma middle class women faced in terms of searching for meaning and fulfillment in their role of housekeeping. In 1920, Benjamin Gitlow was convicted under the and went all the way to the Supreme Court, where the justices decided that the First Amendment applied to the states as well as the federal government. Labor agitators, anarchists and socialists visited Hull House, and free expression made it one of the intellectual centers of the Progressive Era. It awarded pensions to all veterans. From this point onward, Chambers was frequently invited to speak about the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation, care, and treatment. Some educated women worked as teachers, nurses and librarians.
He established a free dispensary for medical emergencies, an employment bureau for job seekers, a summer camp for children, night schools for extended learning, and English language classes. This was the final victory for women to vote. In this collection of writings, Wells also wrote on the different treatment of individuals based on their race. Maud Younger, another suffragist in San Francisco, became involved in reform work. Settlement houses were places where middle-class women and sometimes men went to live in working-class, usually immigrant, neighborhoods. The social structure in rural Philippines was highly traditional and highly unequal. Keep in mind, this era was a few decades long, so many things were accomplished over a long period of time.
That image is crystallized in the image of the Women's Sphere, a political cartoon from a Progressive Era illustrated magazine that depicts a domestic woman gazing over the fence in a hopes of escape. This Congress proposed the voiding of secret treaties, the nationalization of armament industries, and the end of government protection of overseas investments. Living in urban, immigrant communities they came to realize that the complex problems they were dealing with transcended local solutions. The ratification of the in 1920, which recognized was the last amendment during the progressive era. Progressives lived mainly in the cities, were college educated, and believed that government could be a tool for change…. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. Child-labor laws were designed to prohibit children from entering the workforce before a certain age, further compelling children into the public schools.
Economic Theory Many Progressives hoped that by regulating large corporations, they could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism. Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, muckraker, and social documentary photographer. One example of Progressive reform was the rise of the city-manager system, in which salaried, professional engineers ran the day-to-day affairs of city governments under guidelines established by elected city councils. In her magazine, Mother Earth, she criticized all institutions that stifled womens psychological and sexual freedom, naming marriage as such an institution. The misery and poverty of the Great Depression threatened to overwhelm all of these programs.
Wells, were among the first to bring attention to poor living conditions in cities, the plight of immigrants, and racial injustice. Women Progressivism was not just a single movement, rather it was several different organizations of people trying to accomplish their own goals. One of the best known of all Progressive Era women reformers, Addams located and rented a large house in one of Chicago's rundown neighborhoods. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, women reformers such as Jane Addams established settlement houses. He endorsed women's suffrage initiatives at the state level in the 1916 Presidential Democratic platform. They preferred a constitutional amendment over a federal statute because although harder to achieve, they felt it would be harder to change.
These reforms arose from the belief that government has an obligation and interest in protecting and improving the living standards of women and children. Simpler, more streamlined clothing evolved during the turn of the 20 th century. However, many rejected the reform. In 1920, she was a California representative to the national Republican Party Convention. As a member of the Women's Trade Union League, Starr, who co-founded Hull House with Addams, was devoted to making factory work safer for women Like missionaries, these women promoted public health issues like sanitation and contraception and labor rights like unionization and worker safety.
Prior to the Great Depression, the United States had social programs that mostly centered around individual efforts, family efforts, church charities, business workers compensation, life insurance, and sick leave programs, as well as on some state tax supported social programs. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. These worked with the laity on labor and living conditions and promoted the idea of a larger Christian community to combat the rising notion of individualism. A highlight of the exhibition is the inherent connection of the subject matter to the Daughters of the American Revolution National Society. In combination with the racist attitudes of the time, there was a fear that large numbers of unskilled, low-paid workers would defeat the union's efforts to raise wages through collective bargaining. Wells fought hard to shed light on the racism that still existed in the country after abolition.